LIVESTOCK BUDIDAYA sheep
1. BRIEF HISTORY
Sheep that we know now is the result dometikasi human history derived from the 3 types of wild sheep, the Mouflon (Ovis musimon), which comes from Europe and South Asia Small, Argali (Ovis Ammon) came from Southeast Asia, Urial (Ovis vignei) who came of Asia.
2. SENTRA FISHERY
In Indonesia, sheep farming centers in the areas of Aceh and North Sumatra. In Aceh in 1993 was approximately 106 thousand sheep tails, while in North Sumatra, about 95 thousand head of sheep diternakan. Land used for berternak in the Aceh region based on data Puslit Land and Agroklimat Deptan 1979, covering 5.5 million hectares from the ability of class I to VIII, while in North Sumatra area used about 7 million hectares.
As well as goats, sheep, cattle and buffalo, classified in the family Bovidae. We know some of the nation's sheep scattered around the world, such as:
1. The village is a sheep sheep originating from Indonesia
2. Lamb Priangan come from Indonesia and there are many areas in West Java.
3. Ekor sheep is a sheep fat that came from Indonesia as the East Madura, Sulawesi and Lombok.
4. Garut sheep are sheep crossing the triangle between the villages sheep, Merino sheep and fat tails from South Africa.
In Indonesia, especially in Java, there are 2 of the nation's famous sheep, the sheep tail fat that there are many areas in Central Java and Java
East and thin tail sheep that are in West Java
Lamb is a source of animal protein and fat. Although not yet in the community, sheep milk is a nutritious beverage. Another benefit of the sheep berternak is bulunya can be used as the textile industry.
5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS
Location for the sheep farm in the area should be a wide, fresh air and the quiet surrounding, close to the source of cattle feed, has a water source, far from residential areas and sources of water (at least 10 meters), relatively close to the center's marketing and feed livestock.
6. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES BUDIDAYA
1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
Must be strong so that the pen can be used for a long time, the size sesua with the number of cattle, clean, get the morning sun, the enclosure must be adequate ventilation and is higher than the surrounding environment in order not to be inundated. Shed roof grown from a lightweight material and has a power reserve of heat is relatively small, for example, from the roof rumbia.Kandang divided into several parts according to its function, namely:
1. Kandang parent / primary, where the fatted sheep. One need broad tail sheep pen 1 x 1 m.
2. Kandang parent and child, the mother who is breastfeeding her child for 3 months. A parent sheep require wide x 1.5 m and 1 child sheep require knowledgeable 0.75 x 1 m.
3. Pejantan enclosure, where the rams that will be used as pemacak of 2 x 1.5 m / pemancak. In the fold should be a place to eat there, trough of food and beverage, food warehouses, where umbaran (when the sheep pens cleaned) and the dirt / compost.
The type and model of the enclosure in fact can be distinguished into 2 types, namely:
1. Type pen Stage
This type of pen has a vault of valuable container as dirt. Made dug pit and lower than the surface of the soil so that water and sewage kencingnya not berceceran. Alas enclosure made of wood / bamboo that has been preserved, Highest stage of the land is made at least 50 cm / m 2 for the ranch. Palung food should be a meeting, so that the food provided is not tercecer out.
2. Type pen Lemprak
Shed on this type generally used for cattle sheep kereman. Kandang lemprak not equipped with a wood base, but grounded cattle feces and the remnants hijauan feed. Pen does not have the food trough, but the grass basket
placed over the base. Deliberately over-feeding, so that results can be a lot of dirt. Sewage will be demolished after about 1-6 weeks.
2. Preparing Seeds
Lamb is the winner of healthy sheep fell ill and not by pest and disease, comes from the nation's sheep and the percentage of the birth of high fertility, and the growing speed and a good percentage of carcass. Thus the success of the business of cattle sheep can not be separated with the election parent / pejantan that has attributes of both.
1. Candidates and election Seeds Up
1. Candidate Master: aged 1,5-2 years, is not disabled, the form of a normal stomach, small to medium ears, fuzz, visage and have good
kawin big appetite and normal tails.
2. Candidates Pejantan: aged 1,5-2 years old, healthy and not disabled, the body's normal, and the descendants of the birth parent children 2 tails / more, the foot bone protrusion of the penis and have the same major and kelaminnya could react, the movement has lincah, visage and relatively fast growth rate.
2. Reproduction and Marriage
Things that need to be known by the breeder in the management of reproduction is the marriage of planned and on time.
1. Adult Sex, that is when the cattle entered the sheep birahi the first time and ready to implement the process of reproduction. Phase is achieved at the time of sheep aged 6-8 months, both on the male and female.
2. Adult body, namely the male and female sheep ready for is integrated. The period is achieved at the age of 10-12 months on the female and male in 12 months. Marriage will be successful when the female sheep in birahi.
3. Birth Process
Old kebuntingan for sheep is 150 days (5 months). The birth of a child sheep, pens must be clean and dry the pad. Base materials for the enclosure can be a gunny / dry straw. Drugs that need to be prepared is to be smeared on jodium former discount rope navel. Up sheep that can be delivered through the physical changes and perilakunya as follows:
1. The state of decline and stomach pinggul relax.
2. Fruit and milk belly nipple fully.
3. Tumefy genitals, reddish color and moist.
4. Livestock always nervous and decreased appetite.
5. Urinate frequently.
The process of birth takes place 15-30 minutes, if 45 minutes after fetal broken, sheep unborn child, the birth should be assisted. Son of a newborn lamb with a clean dry cloth to use in order to breathe. Usually the parent sheep menjilati son to dry and clean.
1. Sanitation and preventive action
Environmental sanitation can be done with a clean cage and equipment from the nest and insect pests. pen, especially where feed and water washed and dried every day. Cleaning should be done in the wild grass around the enclosure. Corral cleaned once a week.
2. Controlling disease
Sheep disease that can be treated and separated from the healthy. Menyuntikan do preventive vaccination with the sheep healthy.
3. Animal Care
Pregnant mother is given good food and regular, the space field and separated from other sheep. parent given birth to a new food and drink hijauan that has been mixed with other food brace. In addition, the parent must dimandikan sheep. Children sheep (Cempe) was born a new, cleaned and given food that terseleksi. Cempe the disapih note. feed quality
in the form of pulp is not more than 0.20 kg once a day.
Treatment of adult cattle include:
1. Cattle bathe regularly at least once a week. disikat way and disabuni. in the morning, and then dried under the rays
2. Shaving Bulu
Shearing wool with ordinary scissors / razor this. be at least 6 months and disisakan cutting fur setebal approximately 0.5 cm. Previous dimandikan sheep wool, so that can be produced textiles. The four legs bound sheep that does not flee at the time be shaven. Shearing starts from the stomach and the future direction of the sheep back.
3. Caring for Cut and Nail Care
Cutting nails sheep slaughtered 4 months with the machete, carved wood, rantan knife, knife or nail clippers.
4. Giving Feeds
Vitamine food needed by sheep and cattle should be available in the absolute amount that is enough carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals and water. Material feed for sheep in general, classified in 4 groups as follows:
1. The Grass-herb, such as elephant grass, Bengali, brachiaria, the king, mexico and natural grass.
2. The nuts, such as leaves Lamtoro, turi, Gamal peanut leaves, leaves beans, albisia, kaliandra, and gliricidia
3. Results Agriculture waste, such as jackfruit leaves, leaves waru, dadap leaves, hibiscus leaves, banana leaves, corn leaves, yam leaves of trees,
yam leaves and leaf Rambat Beringin.
4. The Food brace (concentration), such as bran, corn karing, salt, coconut oilcake, fish meal, soybean oilcake, pulp, and pulp and soy cotton seed.
Feed for sheep as a mixture of the four groups above the level of compliance with age. The proportion of the mix are:
1. Livestock adults: 75% grass, leaves 25%
2. Up bunting: 60% grass, leaves 40%, concentrate 2-3 glasses
3. Up breastfeeding: 50% grass, leaves 50% and glass konsentrat2-3
4. Children before disapih: 50% grass, leaves 50%
5. Children separated sapih: 60% grass, leaves 40% glass and concentrate 0,5-1
While the dose of sheep ransum for growth are as follows:
1. 1.4 kg of body weight: grass / hijauan = 180 kg / day, growing weight = 50 grams / day
2. 1.4 kg of body weight: grass / hijauan = 340 kg / day, growing weight = 100 grams / day
3. 1.4 kg of body weight: grass / hijauan = 410 kg / day, growing weight = 150 grams / day
4. 2.9 kg of body weight: grass / hijauan = 110 kg / day, growing weight = 50 grams / day
5. 2.9 kg of body weight: grass / hijauan = 280 kg / day, growing weight = 100 grams / day
6. 2.9 kg of body weight: grass / hijauan = 440 kg / day, growing weight = 150 grams / day
7. 4.3 kg of body weight: concentrate = 160 grams / day, growing weight = 50 grams / day
8. 4.3 kg of body weight: concentrate = 320 grams / day, growing weight = 100 grams / day
9. 4.3 kg of body weight: concentrate = 470 grams / day, growing weight = 150 grams / day
10. 5.8 kg of body weight: concentrate = 100 grams / day, growing weight = 50 grams / day
11. 5.8 kg of body weight: concentrate = 260 grams / day, growing weight = 100 grams / day
12. 5.8 kg of body weight: concentrate = 410 grams / day, growing weight = 150 grams / day
13. 7.2 kg of body weight: concentrate = 60 grams / day, growing weight = 50 grams / day
14. 7.2 kg of body weight: concentrate = 180 grams / day, growing weight = 100 grams / day
15. 7.2 kg of body weight: concentrate = 340 grams / day, growing weight = 150 grams / day
16. 8.7 kg of body weight: concentrate = 50 grams / day, growing weight = 50 grams / day
17. 8.7 kg of body weight: concentrate = 110 grams / day, growing weight = 100 grams / day
18. 8.7 kg of body weight: concentrate = 260 grams / day, growing weight = 150 grams / day
19. The weight of 10.1 kg: concentrate = 40 grams / day, growing weight = 50 grams / day
20. The weight of 10.1 kg: concentrate = 280 grams / day, growing weight = 100 grams / day
21. The weight of 10.1 kg: concentrate = 440 grams / day, growing weight = 150 grams / day
5. Vaccination and the provision of medicine
The provision of vaccination can be done once every six months can be done with the vaccination menyuntikan drugs into the body of sheep. Vaccination is done on children start sheep (cempe) when it is aged 1 month, then repeated at the age of 2-3 months. Vaccination is given the usual type of spore vaccine (Max Sterne), Serum anti Anthrax, AE vaccine, vaccines and SE (Septichaemia Epizootica).
6. Maintenance Kandang
Maintenance includes cleaning stalls menimal sheep dung once a week, remove sewage waste to shelter, clean the floor or bed, spraying pengapuran and pens to disinfektan.
7. Pests and diseases
1. Diarrhea disease
The cause: Escherichia coli bacteria that attacks the sheep children aged 3 months. Medicine: antibiotics and sulfa provided through the mouth.
2. Navel inflammation disease
The cause: navel-cutting tool is not sterile or strap navel tercemar by the bacteria Streptococcus, Staphyloccus, Escherichia coli and Actinomyces necrophorus. Age of sheep who fell ill cempe age usually 2-7 days. Symptoms: swelling occurs around the navel, and when the sheep will be in pain. Control: with antibiotics, sulfa and navel compressed with rivanol solution (disinfectant).
3. Smallpox Mulut
The disease attacks the sheep until the age of 3 months. Symptoms: cempe who fell ill could not suck milk mother because tenggorokannya pain which can result in death. Control: the Sulfapyridine such as sulfa, Sulfamerozine, or pinicillin.
4. Diseases Titani
The causes: lack of Defisiensi Calcium (Ca) and Manganese (Mn). Sheep that are attacked are usually 3-4 months. Symptoms: sheep always nervous, some of the strain-relief ototnya even overlooks the body. It can be treated with menyuntikan solution Genconos calcicus and Magnesium.
5. Inflammation disease Limoah
The disease attacks the sheep at all ages, is very dangerous, penularannya quickly and can spread to humans. The cause: the bacteria Bacillus anthracis .. Symptoms: body temperature escalate, from the nostril and anus out the fluid mixed with blood, fast pulse, body trembling, and lost appetite. Control: menyuntikan with antibiotics Pracain penncillin G, with the dose for 6000-10000 / kg body weight of sheep contagious.
6. Nails and mouth disease
This disease can cause death in cattle sheep, and who is attacked in the mouth and nails. The cause: a virus attack and all the sheep in the age of symptoms: mouth blister diselaputi mucus. Control: clean up the blister in the mouth with a solution using aluminum sulphate 5%, while the nail is done by soaking nails in formalin solution Natrium carbonic or 4%.
7. Diseases Ngorok
The cause: the bacteria Pasteurella multocida. Symptoms: sheep decreased appetite, can cause swelling in the neck and chest. All ages can sheep disease, the sheep who fell ill and swelling seen talking stick out, mouth gape, frothy mucus out and difficult to sleep. Control: using antibiotics through drinking water or injection.
8. Diseases flatulency
The cause: the provision of food that is not organized or eating grass that is still covered dew. Symptoms: sheep stomach swell and can cause death. For that arranged a regular feeding schedule and do not amount digembalakan too early Control: to give the sugar diseduh with acid, the next leg of lamb was up front until the gas out.
9. Parasitic worm disease
All ages can sheep disease this. The cause: worms Fasciola gigantica (heart worm), hookworm Neoascaris vitulorum (ring worm), hookworm Haemonchus contortus (stomach worms), worms Thelazia rhodesii (the worms). Control: Zanil given or provided through Valbazen drinks, can also be given drugs such as worms Piperazin with a dose of 220 mg / kg body weight of sheep.
10. Diseases Kudis
It is a disease that attacks the skin of sheep on all ages. As a result of this disease is declining sheep production, the skin becomes ugly and selling livestock to reduce the sheep. The cause: a parasitic lice called Psoroptes ovis, Psoroptes ciniculi and Chorioptes bovis. Symptoms: the sheep's body is weak, thin, decreased appetite and body happy scratch. Scabies can attack the face, ears, back stomach, legs and tail base. Control: the spread Benzoas bensilikus 10% in the wound, with the hose sheep Coumaphos 0,05-0,1%.
11. Diseases Dermatitis
Is infectious skin disease on sheep cattle, the sheep skin seeds. The cause: a virus from the sub-group Pox virus and attack all age sheep. Symptoms: inflammation occurs in the skin around the mouth, eyelid, and genital tool. On a breastfeeding mother to milk gland inflammation. Control: using salep or Jodium tinctur the injured.
12. Scrofula Milk
This disease often occur in the adult sheep breastfeeding, so that the milk of water diisap cempe tercemar. The cause: the sheep udder parent who does not feed the ruti cleaned. Symptoms: swollen udder sheep, be touched when tersa summer, there was a fever and high body temperature, less appetite, milk, water produsi parent reduced. Control: the antibiotic drugs through drinking water.
In general, control and prevention of diseases that occur in sheep can be done with:
1. Keep the pen, pen and pad change.
2. Controlling child sheep (cempe) as often as possible.
3. Providing food and nutrition brace that contains minerals, calcium and mangannya.
4. Providing food as scheduled and the amount, the new feed Hijauan cut should dilayukan before given.
5. Avoiding the rough food or feed hijauan a snail terkontaminasi and washed before dibrikan sebainya first.
6. Sanitation is good, often bathe and shear sheep wool.
7. Tatalaksana pen set properly.
8. Conducting vaccination and treatment of the sick sheep.
1. Main results
Results from the main cultivation is sheep carcass (meat)
2. Additional results
Results from additional cultivation is bulunya sheep (wool), which can be made as textiles.
Before cattle are slaughtered in a way to wash feet and sheep heads above water spout cattle carcass to be generated not
tercemar by bacteria and dirt.
There are several principles that must be technical in cutting the sheep so that the results obtained by cutting the good, namely:
1. Livestock must diistirahatkan sheep before cutting
2. Livestock sheep must be clean, free from dust and dirt that can contaminate meat.
3. Cutting cattle must be done as soon as possible, and the pain suffered by livestock grown little blood and may have to quit completely.
4. All the processes used must be designed to reduce the number and type of microorganisms pencemar minimal as possible.
Barking at the sheep that have been disembelih can be done with the blunt knife or griping that does not damage the skin. Sheepskin cleared of meat, fat, blood stains or dirt attached. If you are clean, with an skelter made from wood, leather dried sheep in the range. Position the most good for drying with the sun is in a position angle 45 degrees.
3. Expenditure offal
After the sheep skinned, viscera (visceral) or often called the viscera issued with the carcass is cut up (meat) in the stomach
4. Cutting carcass
Carcass be split into two parts, namely the body of the carcass left and the right carcass body. Carcass cut-cut into the sub-neck, front thigh, rear thigh, side and back. Pieces are separated into parts meat, fat, bone and tendon. Cutting carcass
must be of good that does not quickly become damaged, especially the quality and hygienitasnya. For the condition of carcass affected by the role of microorganisms during the process of cutting expenditure and offal.
10. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BUDIDAYA
1. Cultivating Business Analysis
Approximate analysis of the sheep during the 136 days in Bogor in 1995 is as follows:
1. Production cost
* Rent land 700 m 2 (5 hours) Rp. 100.000, --
* Sheep ekor@Rp.40.000 lepas sapih 100, - Rp. 4.000.000, --
3. Buildings and equipment
* Kandang size 3.5 m x 18.75 m (2 pieces):
o Bamboo stem @ Rp 360. 2000, - Rp. 720,000, --
o Board of wood 2 m long (352 pieces) @ Rp. 2000, - Rp. 704,000, --
Paku o reng 8 kg @ Rp. 4000, - Rp. 32.000, --
o Paku usuk 10 kg @ Rp. 2500, - Rp. 25.000, --
o Genting 6480 @ Rp fruit. 200, - Rp. 1,296,000, --
o 42 m @ strap Rp. Rp 700.00. 29400, --
* Base Camp + warehouse the size of 5 m x 6 m:
Bamboo batang@Rp.2.000 o 28, - Rp. 56000, --
o Board 2 m length of wood 60 buah@Rp.1.800, - Rp. 108,000, --
o reng Paku 2 kg@Rp.4.000, Rp 00. 8000, --
o Paku usuk 3 kg@Rp.2.500, Rp 00. 7500, --
Genting 1200 buah@Rp.200 o, - Rp. 240.000, --
Tali o 15 m @ Rp. 700, - Rp. 10.500, --
o Place a drink he was 25 cm (100) @ Rp.2.500, - Rp. 250.000, --
o 2 buah@Rp.12.500 shovel, - Rp. 25.000, --
Bucket o plastic diameter 25 cm (3 pcs) @ Rp.2.500, - Rp. 7500, --
o Tong bathtub (2 fruit) Rp.35.000 @, - Rp. 70000, --
o Ciduk (4 pieces) @ Rp.1.500, - Rp. 6000, --
* Hijauan / 34,000 kg@Rp.500 grass, - Rp. 17,000,000, --
* Rp concentrate. 2.450.000, --
* Dedak 1780 kg@Rp.600, - Rp. 1,068,000, --
* Coconut oilcake 890 kg@Rp.1.250, - Rp. 1,112,500, --
* Flour corn 534.1 kg@Rp.900, - Rp. 480,690, --
* Oilcake peanut 284.9 kg@Rp.1800, - Rp. 512,820, --
* Salt kg@Rp.500 kitchen 35.598, - Rp. 17800, --
* Powder kg@Rp.600 bones 23.472, - Rp. 14.100, --
Lime kg@Rp.600 * 23.472, - Rp. 14.100, --
* 112 workers HKSP@Rp.7.000, - Rp. 784,000, --
* Labor 15 HKSP@Rp.7.000, - Rp. 105,000, --
* Maintenance workers during the day Rp 136. 884,000, --
6. Unexpected cost Rp 10%. 3,213,800, --
Total Capital Usaha Tani Rp. 35,351,710, --
1. Value sales ternak100 x 95% x Rp.400.000, - Rp. 38,000,000, --
2. Sales value of manure Rp 250,000, -: Total Income (II) Rp. 38,250,000, --
3. Benefits of business: (II - I) Rp. 2,898,290, --
3. Parameters of the business
a. B / C Ratio = ........ . = 1.08
Total production costs
2. Gambaran Peluang Agribusiness: ...
1. Bambang agus murtidjo. 1993. Keeping sheep, Publisher Kanisius, Yogyakarta.
2. Bambang Cahyono. 1998. Beternak Sheep and Goat, Publisher Kanisius, Yogyakarta.
3. Bambang Sugeng. 1990. Beternak Lamb. Swadaya spreader, Jakarta,
4. Joko santoso dkk. 1991. Crop Livestock Development in Rural Development (Prosiding), Faculty of Animal Husbandry UNSOED. Purwokerto.
5. No news agriculture. 125/Th.X/1993, Livestock, Jakarta, 1993.
12. CONTACT RELATIONS
1. Project Rural Community Economic Development - BAPPENAS Jl.Sunda Coconut No. 7 Jakarta, Tel. 021 390 9829, Fax. 021 390 9829
2. Office Minister of State Research and Technology, Deputy Pendayagunaan and Pemasyarakatan Iptek, BPPT II Building 6 Floor, Jl. M. H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia, Tel. +62 21 316 9166 ~ 69, Fax. +62 21 310 1952, Web Site: http://www.ristek.go.id
Source: Project Development of Rural Economic Society, Bappenas
PRODUCTION SETTINGS of the Lamb
The pattern of production targeted
2. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES
1. The marriage is intended to set the sheep production tailored to the child's sales goals. Are the target of at least one head per month can be sold.
2. Pejantan and 8 female tail is the smallest scale to produce one child each month. sheep together with the parent pejantan for 2 months and replaced every 2 weeks with the next chief does not bunting.
3. Old child with the parent is 3 months and for the purpose of my disapih or seeds.
4. feeding for pregnant and breastfeeding mother added feed additional feed basic grass / hijauan (1 1 / 2% body weight)
Ministry of Agriculture, http://www.deptan.go.id, March 2001
4. CONTACT RELATIONS
RI Department of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture Office - Jalan Harsono RM No. 3, Ragunan - Pasar Minggu, Jakarta 12550 - Indonesia