Jumat, 16 Januari 2009

BUDIDAYA broiler

BUDIDAYA broiler

1. BRIEF HISTORY

Broiler called Broiler, which is a type of race-winning results from the crossing of the nations that have the power chicken high productivity, especially in producing chicken meat. Broiler chicken is actually a new popular in Indonesia since 1980 in which the holder of a panggalakan power consumption of meat ruminansia which at that time was more difficult existence. Broiler chickens until now has been known of the Indonesian people with a variety of benefits. Only 5-6 sunday be harvested. With the maintenance of a relatively short and profitable, many breeders and new breeders seasonal appear in different parts of Indonesia.

2. SENTRA FISHERY

Chicken has been developed very rapidly in every country. In Indonesia, efforts broiler cattle have also found almost every province

3. TYPE

With a range of broiler strain that has been circulating dipasaran, cattle farmers need not be concerned in determining the choice. For all of the strain that has been circulating the productivity of resources have relatively sama.Artinya if there is a difference, the difference is not flashy or very very small. In determining the choice of strain is to be maintained, breeders can request a list of productivity, or achievements of the seeds sold in the Poultry Shoup. The type of broiler strain of many circulating in the market are: Super 77, tiles 70, ISA, Kim cross, Lohman 202, Hyline, Vdett, Missouri, Hubbard, Shaver Starbro, Pilch, Yabro, Goto, arcres Arbor, Tatum, Indian river, Hybro, Cornish, Brahma, Langshans, Hypeco-Broiler, Ross, Marshall "m", Euribrid, AA 70, H & N, Sussex, Bromo, CP 707.

4. BENEFITS

Benefits Beternak broiler, among others, include:

1. the provision of animal protein needs
2. the spare time in the retirement
3. education and training (Training) skills be teenagers
4. savings in old age
5. sufficient family needs (profit motive)

5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS

1. Location is quite far from the hustle / housing residents.
2. Location easily reached from the center of marketing.
3. Location selected is settled, it means not easily disrupted by the needs other than for animal husbandry.

6. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES BUDIDAYA

Before starting the business Beternak, a breeder must understand the three (3) elements of production, namely: management (management of animal husbandry), breeding (of) and feeding (cattle food / feed)

1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
1. Perkandangan
Perkandangan system that is ideal for business chickens race include:
* Terms of temperature ranges between 32,2-35 degrees C,
* Humidity ranges between 60-70%, lighting / heating enclosure in accordance with existing rules,
* The layout of the enclosure to get the morning sun, and not against the direction of the gale, the enclosure is adapted to the age chicken,
* To Anakan sunday until age 2 or 1 hour using pen box, chicken teenagers to ± 1 month to 2 or 3 months using pen and box which grew to be the adult chicken pens postal atapun pen bateray.
* To kontruksi pens should not be with the expensive materials, which is strong, clean and durable.
2. Tools
1. Litter (floor covering)
Alas floor / litter must be dry, it does not have a roof leak and rain water does not have a go despite gale. Litter thick as 10 cm, the material used litter mixture of bran / husk with a little lime and sand secukupnya, hasi or wood shavings with a length of between 3-5 cm to substitute bran / husk.
2. Indukan or brooder
This globe-shaped or square area with a range of 1-3 m with a heater in the middle. Its function as a warm hen ayamnya children when the new hatch.
3. Place perch (if necessary)
Places to sit resting place / sleep, made near the wall and arranged to fall in the dirt floor that is easily cleaned from the outside. Created closed to avoid the wind and the location is lower than the spawn.
4. Places to eat, drink and Grit
Food and drink should be enough, material of bamboo, or Almunium are strong and does not leak also not rust. To place a special box with Grit
5. Equipment routine
Equipment, including routine health tools such as chicken: injection, operating scissors, a knife cut a small operation, and others.
2. Seedling
Livestock must be kept to meet the requirements as follows:
1. healthy cattle and is not on the physical disability
2. normal growth and development
3. derived from cattle of known advantages.
4. there is no coherence in the feces duburnya
1. Candidates and election Seeds Up
There are some technical guidelines to select seeds / DOC (Day OldChicken) / chicken aged a day:
1. Chickling (DOC) derived from a healthy mother.
2. Bulu appear smooth and full and good growth.
3. There is no disability in the body.
4. Chickling mempunyak appetite is good.
5. Normal body size, the size of body weight between 35-40 grams.
6. No letakan feces diduburnya.
2. The seed treatment and Candidate Master
Done at any time, if there are symptoms of deviation in cattle that are given immediate attention and special treatment given appropriate instructions Animal Husbandry or local veterinarian who works in the regions concerned.
3. Maintenance
1. Giving Feed and Drink
1. To feed race Broiler chickens have two (2) phases, namely starter phase (age 0-4 weeks) and finisher phase (age 4-6 sunday).
1. Quality and quantity of feed phase starter is as follows:
* The quality of the womb or vitamin feed consisting of 22-24% protein, 2.5% fat, fiber roughly 4%, Calcium (Ca) 1%, Phospor (P) 0,7-0,9%, ME 2800-3500 Kcal.
* Quantity of feed divided / grouped into 4 (four) is the first sunday (age 1-7 days) 17 grams / day / head, the second sunday (age 8-14 days) 43 grams / day / head, sunday to-3 ( age 15-21 days) 66 grams / day / head and sunday to-4 (age 22-29 days) 91 grams / day / head. So the amount of food needed each tails up at the age of 4 sunday 1520 grams.
2. Quality and quantity of feed finisher phase is as follows:
* The quality of the womb or vitamin feed consists of a protein 18,1-21,2%; fat 2.5%, 4.5% coarse fiber, calcium (Ca) 1%, Phospor (P) 0,7-0,9 % and energy (ME) 2900-3400 Kcal.
* Quantity of feed divided / grouped in four age groups, namely:
o sunday to-5 (age 30-36 days) 111 grams / day / head,
sunday-o to 6 (age 37-43 days) 129 grams / day / head,
o sunday to-7 (age 44-50 days) 146 grams / day / head and
sunday to o-8 (age 51-57 days) 161 grams / day / head.
So the total number of feed per head at the age of 30-57 days is 3829 grams.
2. The provision of drinking age adjusted dangan chicken, which are grouped in two (2) phases, namely:
1. Starter phase (age 1-29 days), drinking water needs more divided on each sunday, sunday, namely to-1 (1-7 days) 1.8 lliter/hari/100 tails; sunday to-2 (8-14 days) 3.1 liter/hari/100 tails, sunday to-3 (15-21 days) 4.5 liter/hari/100 tails and sunday to-4 (22-29 days) 7.7 liter / day / head . So the amount of water needed until age 4 sunday was 122.6 liter/100 tails. The provision of drinking water on the first day should be given extra sugar and anti-stress drugs into the drink of water. Too much sugar is given 50 grams / liter of water.
2. Phase finisher (age 30-57 days), terkelompok in each of the sunday sunday to-5 (30-36 days) 9.5 liter/hari/100 tails, sunday to-6 (37-43 days) 10.9 liter/hari/100 tails, sunday to-7 (44-50 days) 12.7 liter/hari/100 tails and sunday to-8 (51-57 days) 14.1 liters / day / head. So total water 30-57 minutes of 333.4 liters / day / head.
2. Maintenance Kandang
Environmental hygiene pens (sanitation) in the area of livestock disease prevention efforts are the most inexpensive, energy that is required only ulet / skilled course. Preventive action by giving the vaccine in cattle with the brand and dose according to a note on the label of a poultry shoup. So that the building enclosure can be useful in an effective, then the building enclosure should be maintained both the cage and always kept clean / check if there is a damaged part that immediately disulam / repaired again. Thus the power to be shed without reducing the maximum requirements for the livestock pens are kept.

7. Pests and diseases

1. Diseases
1. Dysentery (Coccidiosis)
Symptoms: bloody feces and diarrhea, poor appetite, terkulasi wing, feather dull cold shiver.
Control:
1. lingkungaan maintain hygiene, keep litter remain dry;
2. with Tetra Chloine Capsule given through the mouth; Noxal, Zuco Trisula dilarutkan tablets in water or sulfaqui moxaline, amprolium, cxaldayocox.
2. Tetelo (NCD / New Casstle Diseae)
Symptoms: chicken difficult breathing, coughing, coughing, sneezing, grunting arise, lethargic, sleepy eyes, wing terkulasi, sometimes bloody, watery feces greenness of the specific symptoms "tortikolis" namely the play-mutar not stabilized and paralysis.
Control:
1. maintain environmental hygiene, and equipment that tercemar virus, animal vectors of disease tetelo, chickens that died immediately burned / removed;
2. separate the sick chickens, guests enter the area to prevent livestock without a shirt mensucihamakan / sterile and conduct vaccination NCD. Until now there is no medicine.
2. Pests
1. Mite (kutuan)
Symptoms: chicken nervous, often matuk peck-and-lash ngibaskan indumentum as itchy, appetite down, pale and emaciated.
Control:
1. environmental sanitation henhouse good; separate the sick chicken with a healthy;
2. with the use of carbonic sevin concentration of 0.15% encerkan with water and then using the semprotkan carbonic sevin concentration of 0.15% with a encerkan with water and then semprotkan ketubuh patients. With fumigasi or pengasepan use insecticide that evaporate easily, such as sulphate or Nocotine Black leaf 40.

8. PANEN

1. Main results
For livestock broiler business, the result is the main form of chicken
2. Additional results
Business Broiler chickens (Pedaging) is a form of feces or sewage, and quill pens.

9. PASCAPANEN

1. Stoving
Out before chicken is done cutting, it is usually placed in the enclosure's (Houlding Ground)
2. Cutting
Cutting dilehernya chicken is done, so that the principle of blood out of or about 2 / 3 neck and cut-awaited 1-2 minutes. This is so good quality meat, is not easy and simple tercemar decay.
3. Revocation or barking Bulu
How chicken that has been cut to the dicelupkan in hot water (51.7 - 54.4 ° C). Long immersion Broiler chicken is 30 seconds. Plume of
smooth with a revoked put liquid wax or burned with blue flame.
4. Expenditure offal
Dubut cut the bottom bit, the whole viscera (liver, intestine and ampela) issued. Intestine can be sold or be included in the meat ready
cooked in a separate package.
5. Cutting carcass
Chicken feet and neck cut. Tunggir also cut when it is not preferred. After all viscera are removed and washed clean carcass, chicken leg / thigh ditekukan under the anus. Then cooled and packed chicken.

10. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BUDIDAYA

1. Cultivating Business Analysis
Basic calculation of the cost incurred and income earned in this analysis are:
1. the type of chicken that was kept kind of broiler (Broiler) from CP.707 strain.
2. maintenance system that is applied with a pen on the intensive model postal
3. land that is used is 200 m 2 with a value of land rent price in 1 ha / year is Rp 1.000.000, -.
4. pens made from bamboo framework, ground floor, walls made of bamboo strip-blade base with a wall at 30 cm, made of bricks and plaster the roof of the grave.
5. the size of the enclosure, the high edge of 2.5 m, 5 m wide pen and the wide edge shed 1.5 m.
6. the location of livestock near the source of water and electricity.
7. using a heater (brooder) gasolec with fuel gas.
8. lighting with electric lights.
9. chicken that is the age starting from seeds that are 1 day
10. litter / pad enclosure using rice husk.
11. the type of feed given to BR-1 is for children ages 0-4 sunday chicken and BR-2 for ages 4-6 sunday.
12. chicken mortality rate is assumed 6%.
13. long period of maintenance that is 6 weeks (42 days).
14. average weight per chickens assumed 1.75 kg live weight at the time of harvest.
15. chicken price per kg of live weight, which is assumed Rp 2500, -, even though the price range of Rp 3,000, - at the breeder / farmer.
16. chicken sold at the age of 6 mingu or 42 days.
17. the value of manure that is Rp 60,000, -.
18. Bank interest rate that is 1.5% / month
19. value depreciation enclosure is the life force with 6 years and the value of the equipment depreciation be calculated with the life 5
year.
20. calculation of the cost of this analysis is only as basic guidelines, because the value / price at any time can change.
The details of production costs and farm capital are as follows:
1. Infrastructure cost of production
1. Land rent 200 m 2 for 2 months --------------- Rp. 20.000, --
2. Kandang size 20 x 5 m
Bamboo 180 * @ stem ,-------------- Rp Rp 1250. 225,000, --
* Cement Zak 4 @ 7000 ,-------------------- Rp Rp. 28.000, --
Lime 30 * @ Zak ,------------------- Rp Rp 6000. 18.000, --
* Genting 2600 bh @ Rp Rp 90 ,-------------------. 234.000, --
* Paku reng 5 kg @ Rp 2000 ,------------------ Rp. 10.000, --
* Paku usuk 7000 kg @ Rp 1800, Rp -------------. 12600, --
* The stone fruit @ 1000 brick Rp Rp 55 ,---------------. 55.000, --
Sand trucks ----------------------------------- Rp 1. 230,000, --
* Strap 28 meters @ Rp 5000, Rp --------------------. 14.000, --
* Employment ---------------------------------- Rp. 400.000, --
3. Tools
* Place feed 28 pcs @ Rp 5000, Rp ------------. 140.000, --
* Where to drink 32 pcs @ Rp 3,880, Rp ------------. 124,000, --
* Shovel ----------------------------------- Rp 1 bh. 7000, --
* Bucket 2 bh @ Rp 2,000, Rp ----------------------. 4000, --
* Tong bathtub ----------------------------- Rp 1 bh. 15.000, --
* Ciduk 2 pcs @ Rp 500, Rp ------------------------. 1000, --
* 1 large gas holder bh ------------------------- Rp. 250.000, --
* Thermometer ----------------------------- Rp 1 bh. 2000, --
* Regulator --------------------------------- Rp 1 bh. 52500, --
* Brooder (gasolec) ------------------------ 1 bh Rp. 15.000, --
* Strap hanging tmp feed 120 m @ Rp 500, - ----- Rp. 60.000, --
Amount of the production infrastructure --------------- Rp. 2,052,000, --
2. Cost of production facilities
1. Seeds DOC 1000 bh @ Rp 900, - -------------------- Rp. 900.000, --
2. Food and medicines
BR-1 * 31 Zak (0-4 sunday) @ Rp 36,000, Rp -------. 1,116,000, --
* 2 BR-34 Zak (4-6 mingu) @ Rp 34,000, Rp --------. 1,156,000, --
* Medicines @ Rp 150, Rp -/ekor ------------------. 150.000, --
3. labor raised 1.5 bln @ Rp 105,000, - -------- Rp. 157,500, --
4. Other ---------------------------------------------- Rp . 10.000, --
* Rice bran layer shed 1 truck @ Rp 60.000, - - Rp. 60.000, --
* 32 former gunny bags @ Rp 300, - ------ Rp. 2400, --
* Electricity usage during the 0-6 sunday ------------- Rp. 7000, --
* ----------------------------------- Rp gas usage. 35.000, --
The amount of production cost --------------------------- Rp. 3,583,900, --
3. Production cost
1. Land rent 200 m 2 for 2 months ------------------ Rp. 20.000, --
2. Decrease the value of production infrastructure / 2 bln
* ----------------------------------------- Rp enclosure. 51109, --
* Peralatan Rp 805,660, -: 30 ---------- ----------- Rp. 26856, --
3. Seeds DOC 1000 --------------------------------- Rp tails. 900.000, --
4. Feed and medicines -------------------------------- Rp. 2,422,000, --
5. Labor ------------------------------------------- Rp. 157,500, --
6. Other ----------------------------------------------- - Rp. 104,400, --
7. Capital 1.5% interest per month --------------------------- Rp. 84543, --
8. Month capital --------------------------------- Rp 1.5 months. 126,815, --
---------------------------------- Number of production cost Rp. 3,808,680, --
4. Income
1. Total production 1000X94% X1, 75 kg X Rp 2500, - ----- Rp. 4,112,500, --
2. Fertilizer shed value ----------------------------------- Rp. 60.000, --
3. Total revenue ------------------------------------- Rp. 4,172,500, --
4. -------------------------------------------- Rp advantage. 363,820, --
5. Parameters of the business
1. BEP Production Volume = 870 tails
2. BEP Production Price Rp. 3,316,000, --
3. B / C Ratio = 1.09
4. ROI = 6.45%
5. The ratio of profit to revenue = 8.71%
6. Highest capital = 2.6 th.
2. Gambaran Peluang Agribusiness
Prospects for livestock agribusiness Broiler chickens sufficient market where demand is always increasing, in line with the public awareness of the importance of animal nutrition. Production Broiler chickens at this time and rapidly growing market opportunity that can dihandalkan.

11. REFERENCES

1. Muhammad Rasyaf, Dr., Ir. Beternak Chicken Pedaging. Publisher spreader Swadaya (member IKAPI) Jakarta.
2. Cahyono, Bambang, Ir.1995. How to Improve Cultivation Ras Pedaging Chicken (Broiler). Publisher Reader Nusatama Yogyakarta.

12. CONTACT RELATIONS

1. Project Rural Community Economic Development - BAPPENAS Jl.Sunda Coconut No. 7 Jakarta, Tel. 021 390 9829, Fax. 021 390 9829
2. Office Minister of State Research and Technology, Deputy Pendayagunaan and Pemasyarakatan Iptek, BPPT II Building 6 Floor, Jl. M. H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia, Tel. +62 21 316 9166 ~ 69, Fax. +62 21 310 1952, Web Site: http://www.ristek.go.id Jakarta, March 2000

Source: Project Development of Rural Economic Society, Bappenas

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