Jumat, 16 Januari 2009

BUDIDAYA LIVESTOCK KELINCI

BUDIDAYA LIVESTOCK KELINCI

1. BRIEF HISTORY

Livestock is the wild animals that are difficult to be domesticated. Domesticated rabbits since 2000 years ago with the goal of beauty, food and as animal experiments. Almost every country in the world have cattle rabbit rabbits have power because the body adapts to its relatively high living in almost all the world. Rabbit developed in the regions with relatively high population, the spread of rabbit There is also a different cause, called on the European rabbit, rabbit called Indonesia, called Java
trewelu and so forth.

2. SENTRA FISHERY

Indonesia is still limited in certain areas and not become a production center / maintenance in other words still traditional.

3. TYPE

According to the Binomial system, the rabbit is classified as follows:
Ordo: Lagomorpha
Family: Leporidae
Sub-family: Leporine
Genus: Lepus, Orictolagus
Species: Lepus spp., Orictolagus spp.
Type the American public is diternakkan Chinchilla, Angora, Belgian, Californian, Dutch, English Spot, Flemish Giant, Havana, Himalayan, New Zealand Red, White and Black, Rex United States. The local rabbit actually originated from Europe that has been mixed with other types to the more difficult to recognize. Type of New Zealand White and Californian is very good for the production of meat, while good for Angora wool.

4. BENEFITS

Benefits that are taken from rabbit fur and meat at this time until the start of behavior in the market. In addition, the product can be used for fertilizer, handicrafts and cattle feed.

5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS

Near water sources, far from the residence, free of harmful smoke, odor-bauan, noise and protected from predators.

6. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES BUDIDAYA

That need to be in the business of cattle rabbit is the appropriate location of preparation, making pens, provision of seeds and provision of feed.

1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
Function as a place to pen berkembangbiak with the ideal temperature 21 ° C, air circulation smoothly, lighting ideal long 12 minutes and protect livestock from predators. According to the usefulness, hutch be divided into pens parent. For parent / parent or adult rabbits and their children, male pen, specially for pejantan with bigger and separated children Kandang sapih. To avoid early marriage groups performed the separation between male and female. Pen-sized 200x70x70 cm base 50 cm high enough for the 12 male head betina/10 tail. Kandang children (the bear) the size of 50x30x45 cm.
According to the shapes hutch is divided into:
1. Kandang postal system, without pengumbaran page, and placed in a room suitable for a young rabbit.
2. Kandang ranch system, equipped with pengumbaran page.
3. Kandang battery; cage similar line where one cage to a head with the construction Flatdech Battery (park), Tier Battery (stratified), Pyramidal Battery (bucket pyramid).
Equipment enclosure that is needed is a food and drink that shatter-resistant and easy to clean.
2. Seedling
Depending on the requirements for cattle from the main rabbit breeding is. For the purpose of the type of the type of Angora wool, American Chinchilla and Rex is a suitable livestock. Are for the purpose of the type of Belgian meat, Californian, Flemish Giant, Havana, Himalayan and New Zealand is a match that kept cattle.
1. Seed selection and potential parent
When the farm aims to meat, choose the type of rabbit body weight and high perdagingan with good, whereas for the purpose of fur clearly choose seeds that have the genetic potential of growth is good wool. Specifically to the nature of both must have high fertility, is not easily nervous, not disabled, and the net terawat, wool does not faint, lincah / active move.
2. The seed treatment and prospective parent
Determine the quality of care seed parent who is also good, because treatment is the main concern is the need to feed enough, and the pen of good sanitation and prevent the enclosure from outside interference.
3. System Pemuliabiakan
To get the seed of a better and maintain the specific nature of the ground divided into 3 categories, namely:
1. In Breeding (in cross), to maintain and show specific nature such as wool, meat proportion.
2. Cross Breeding (cross outside), to get better offspring / add attributes superior.
3. Pure Line Breeding (cross between murai seeds), for a nation / species are expected to have a new look which is a
2 benefits of seed mix.
4. Reproduction and Marriage
Doe when it is integrated immediately reached adulthood at the age of 5 months (female and male). When the subject is too young and health child mortality is high. Pejantan when the first spouse, should kawinkan with a female who have been childless. Kawin time morning / afternoon
pejantan days in the cage and let it happen to 2 times the marriage, then pejantan separated.
5. Birth Process
After the marriage will have a rabbit kebuntingan for 30-32 days. Kebuntingan in rabbits can be detected with the stomach feel doe 12-14 days after marriage, when the ball feels there is a small-ball means kebuntingan happen. Five days before the birth mother moved to the bear cage to give the opportunity to prepare penghangat way merontokkan bulunya. The birth of rabbits that often occur at night with the child's condition is weak, eyes closed and not feathered. Number of children born vary around 6-10 tails.
3. Maintenance
1. Sanitation and preventive action
Place the dry always arranged so that it does not nest disease. Place a damp and wet so easy to cause a cold and skin disease.
2. Controlling disease
Cony the disease usually have symptoms of the doldrums, down appetite, body temperature up and glassy eyes. When the rabbit show this soon dikarantinakan objects and pencemar also removed immediately to prevent disease outbreaks.
3. Animal Care
Cony Penyapihan children aged 7-8 after sunday. Children placed sapihan pen apart with the contents 2-3 tails / cage and provided adequate food and quality. Gender-based separation is necessary to prevent the adults too early. Castration can be done at the adults. Generally done in the rabbit with a male cast testisnya.
4. Giving Feeds
Type of feed given to include hijauan include grass field, elephant grass, vegetables include cabbage, mustard greens, kangkung, bean leaves, leaves and leaf turi long beans, biji-bijian/pakan brace include corn, green beans, rice, peanuts, sorghum, oilcake and bran-bungkilan. To meet this need to feed feed tambahn concentrate that can be purchased at the store cattle feed. Food and drink provided dipagi around 10:00 hours. Rabbits were given feed mixed with bran little water. At 13:00 given little grass / secukupnya at 18:00 and the grass is given in the amount more. Provision needs to be provided with drinking water in the cage to bring the body needs fluids.
5. Maintenance Kandang
Floor / bed cage, where food and drink, feed and residual dirt rabbit must be cleaned every day to avoid the occurrence of the disease. Morning sun to enter the enclosure must be to kill the seeds of disease. Enclosure walls be painted with lime / ter. Kandang former sick rabbit
cleaned with Creolin / lysol.

7. Pests and diseases

1. Blain
The cause: the occurrence of the collection of blood under the skin dirty.
Control: surgery and the gross expenditure of blood next Jodium given.
2. Scabies
The cause: Darcoptes scabiei. Symptoms: marked with a sore on the body.
Control: salep with antibiotics.
3. Eczema
The cause: a dirt patch in the skin.
Control: using salep / Salicyl powder.
4. Ear
The cause: lice.
Control: meneteskan vegetable oils.
5. Scalp disease
The cause: mushroom.
Symptoms: a kind of relief on the scale.
Control: with sulfur powder.
6. Eye disease
Causes: bacteria and dust.
Symptoms: watery eyes wet and hold.
Control: the salep eyes.
7. Mastitis
The cause: a little out of milk / can not go out.
Symptoms: stalk and become hot when held.
Control: not wean the child is too sudden.
8. Colds
The cause: a virus.
Symptoms: watery nose continue.
Control: spraying antiseptic on the nose.
9. Pneumonia
The cause: the bacteria Pasteurella multocida.
Symptoms: shortness of breath, eye and ear kebiruan.
Control: given drinking Sul-Q-Nox.
10. Dysentery
The cause: protozoa Eimeira.
Symptoms: lost appetite, body lean, diarrhea and stomach draw blood.
Control: sulfaquinxalin dose given to drink 12 ml in 1 liter of water.
11. Pests are generally in the rabbit from the rabbit predators such as dogs. In general, prevention and pengendalianhama do with the disease and maintain environmental hygiene pens, feeding and appropriate nutrition and meet as soon as possible evacuation of sick cattle.

8. PANEN

1. Main results
The result is a major rabbit meat and fur
2. Additional results
Results for the additional form of sewage fertilizer
3. Arrest
And to note how rabbits should hold the right not to be so in pain.

9. PASCAPANEN

1. Stoving
Cony dipuasakan 6-10 hours before the cut to clear gut. The provision of drinking remain.
2. Cutting
Cutting can be 3 ways:
1. Leathering preliminary, rabbit beaten with a blunt object on the head and when disembelih coma.
2. Neck bone fracture, be broken with a tug on the collar bone. This is less good.
3. Cutting normal, the same as another crop of cattle.
3. Barking
Implemented starting from the back foot to the head position with rabbit swing.
4. Expenditure offal
Stomach sliced skin from navel to the head and viscera such as intestine, heart and lungs removed. The bladder needs to be broken up because it can affect the quality of the carcass.
5. Cutting carcass
Cony cropped so the 8, 2-piece front foot, 2-piece rear legs, 2 breasts and cut the 2 pieces of the back. Carcass Presentase good 49-52%.

10. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BUDIDAYA

1. Analysis of Business Cultivation
Estimated analysis rabbit farming based on the number of 20 head of cattle per parent:
1. Production Cost
1. Pens and Rp. 1.000.000, --
2. 20 seed parent tails @ Rp. 30,000, Rp. 600.000, --
3. Pejantan @ Rp 3 tails. 20.000, - Rp. 60.000, --
4. Feed
* Sayur + Rp grass. 1.000.000, --
* Konsetrat (food additional) Rp. 2.000.000, --
5. Rp drugs. 1.000.000, --
6. Labor 2 x 12 x Rp. 150.000, - Rp. 3.600.000, --
The amount of production cost Rp. 9,260,000, --
2. Income
Live births / mother / year = 31 tails
Sale:
1. Seeds: 20 x 15 x Rp. 20.000, - Rp. 6,000,000, --
2. Cony cut 20 x 15 x Rp. 50.000, - Rp. 15.000.000, --
3. Feses / Rp dirt. 60.000, --
4. Bulu Rp. 750.000, --
Total revenue Rp. 21,810,000, --
3. Rp advantage. 12,550,000, --
4. Parameters of business: - B / C ratio = 2.36
2. Gambaran Peluang Agribusiness
Increased nutrient movement that proclaimed government, especially coming from the animal protein still has not been fulfilled. We still needs a lot of meat to be imported from. Cony that have advantages in developing rapid, high quality meat, easy maintenance and low production costs make livestock this potential to be developed. Moreover, supported by market demand and prices of meat and wool that is high enough.

11. REFERENCES

1. Anonymous, 1986, Rabbit Maintenance and quail, Yasaguna, Jakarta.
2. Kartadisastra. HR, 1995, Superior Beternak Rabbit, Kanisius, Yogyakarta.
3. Sarwono. B, 1985, Superior Beternak Rabbit, spreader Swadaya, Jakarta.
4. Jonah. M and Minarti. S, 1990, Aneka Livestock, Brawijaya University, Malang.

12. CONTACT RELATIONS

1. Project Rural Community Economic Development - BAPPENAS Jl.Sunda Coconut No. 7 Jakarta, Tel. 021 390 9829, Fax. 021 390 9829
2. Office Minister of State Research and Technology, Deputy Pendayagunaan and Pemasyarakatan Iptek, BPPT II Building 6 Floor, Jl. M. H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia, Tel. +62 21 316 9166 ~ 69, Fax. +62 21 310 1952, Web Site: http://www.ristek.go.id

Source: Project Development of Rural Economic Society, Bappenas

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