( Bos sp. )
1. BRIEF HISTORY
Cattle are the most important livestock as a source of meat, milk, labor and other needs. Cow produces about 50% (45-55%) of meat in the world needs, the needs of 95% and 85% milk skin needs. Cow came from family Bovidae. as well as the Bison, bison, water buffaloes (Bubalus), African buffalo (Syncherus), and Anoa.
Domestikasi cattle start made about 400 years BC. Estimated to come from cows Central Asia, then spread to Europe, Africa and throughout Asia. Towards the end of the 19th century, Ongole cattle from India to include Sumba island and since that time the island was used as a breeding cow Ongole pure.
In the year 1957 has made the genetic improvement of the quality of cattle Madura with the way the cattle menyilangkannya Red Deen. Another contradiction between local cattle (hybrid Ongole) with Frisian Holstein dairy cow in Grati to dairy cow is a new type of in accordance with the climate and conditions in Indonesia.
2. SENTRA FISHERY
Cattle breeding centers in the world in European countries (Scotland, UK, Denmark, France, Switzerland, Netherlands), Italy, United States, Australia, Africa and Asia (India and Pakistan). Holstein Friesian cows, for example, is familiar with the high production susunya (+ 6350 kg / year), with milk fat percentage of around 3-7%. However, dairy cow, cattle are able to be in that up to 25,000 kg of milk / year, when the seeds are used superior, given the feed in accordance with the needs of livestock, the environment that support and implement a management culture with the good. Currently, production of milk in the world reached 385 million m2/ton/th, especially in a zone that is being. Milk production in cows PSPB still less than 10 liters / day, and far from the normal standard 12 liter / day (the average is only 5-8 liters / day).
In general, the nations cow (Bos) is there in the world there are two, namely (1) groups that come from Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) or the type of cow that berpunuk, coming and spread in the tropics and (2) groups from Bos primigenius, which spread in the sub-tropical or better known as the Bos Taurus.
Type of dairy cow and the winner most of the cows is kept Shorhorn (UK), Holstein Friesian (Dutch), Yersey (of the strait between the English Channel and France), Brown Swiss (from Switzerland), Danish Red (from Denmark) and Droughtmaster (from Australia). Results of the survey PSPB Cibinong shows that the type of dairy cow the most suitable and profitable for dibudidayakan in Indonesia is Frisien Holstein.
Livestock cattle produce meat as a source of protein, milk, leather used for industrial and manure as a source of organic agriculture.
5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS
The ideal location to build a shed is a region that is located quite far from the settlement, but easily accessible by car. Enclosure must be separated from homes with a minimum distance of 10 meters and the sun should be able to cut through the cage and close to the agricultural land. Pembuatannya can be done in a group or in the middle of rice fields.
6. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES BUDIDAYA
6.1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
Pens can be made in the form of single or double, depending on the number of cattle owned. In the single-cage type, placement is done on the cow one line or one row, while the pen bertipe double placement is done on two series of each other or each other for behind. Between the two series are made to line the road.
Preparation for the purpose of my pen (kereman) usually form when a single capacity of the livestock kept only a few. However, when the cattle production is for the commercial, the size of the enclosure should be more knowledgeable and more so that it can accommodate the large number of cattle that much more. Floors should be arranged pens remain clean in order to prevent the occurrence of various diseases. Floors made of soil cement or compact, and easy to clean from cow dung. Dialasi ground floor with a straw bed dry as a warm enclosure.
Pens and all the equipment that should never be used disuci hamakan first with disinfectant, such as creolin, lysol, and other materials. The size of the enclosure made for a mature bull x2 is 1.5 m or 2.5 m x2, while for adult female cow is 1.8 m and x2 for the calf is 1.5 m x1 tail, with a high top, 2-2, 5 m of land. The temperature in the enclosure around 25-40 degrees C (average 33 degrees C) and
75% humidity. Location of maintenance can be done on the low (100-500 m) to high (> 500 m).
The requirements that must be met by seed female adult dairy cow is:
1. high milk production,
2. 3,5-4,5 age years and have been childless,
3. comes from the parent and offspring pejantan that have high milk production,
4. form of the body such as the wedge,
5. luminous eyes, your back straight, head of both, the distance front foot or the back foot is quite big and strong legs,
6. udder is big enough, pertautan good enough in the body, be touched when the soft, smooth skin, vena much milk, long and sinuous, nipple is not more than 4, is located in a square that is not symmetrical and too short,
7. healthy body and not as a disease, and
8. give birth each year.
Meanwhile, both the main candidates are:
1. comes from the parent of a high milk yield water,
2. head and neck a little long, sharp shoulder, the body long enough, back and pinggul average, in the chest and pinggul wide,
3. the distance between the two rear legs and two front legs wide enough,
4. udder growth and good stalk,
5. stalk number of not more than 4 and the location of symmetrical, and
6. healthy and not disabled.
Pejantan that both must meet the following criteria:
1. age of 4-5 years,
2. have high fertility,
3. power production is down to the high children,
4. comes from the parent and pejantan good,
5. big body in accordance with age, strong, and have attributes pejantan good,
6. head width, neck big, wide waist, back strong,
7. a little long face, shoulder width and a little sharp,
8. Average thigh and quite separate,
9. chest width and the distance between the bones rusuknya quite wide,
10. body length, in the chest, chest circumference and the circumference of the belly, and
11. healthy, free from disease and disability does not reduce the offspring.
1. Candidates and election Seeds Up
To pursue a higher livestock productivity, environmental improvement is needed and increase the genetic quality of the cattle. The new seed must come quarantined for disease transmission. Then the seeds are given to drink water mixed with salt, placed in a clean cage and be pondered and recorded appearance.
2. The seed treatment and Candidate Master
All virgin dairy cow that has not shown signs birahi pregnant or not after a certain period, should be. If a cow that has been be the milk, the cows are again based on the production susunya, trends infected udder inflammation and temperamennya.
3. The system Pemuliabiakan
Often dairy cow is integrated with the virgin pejantan Pedaging to reduce the risk of birth and new difficulties after the child is integrated with a single dairy cow pejantan options. Seeds should be given the opportunity to move on at least 2 hours each day.
1. Sanitation and preventive action
On the maintenance-intensive beef cattle breeder dikandangkan so easy mengawasinya, while maintaining an extensive monitoring difficult because the beef-cattle that are left free to live. Dairy cow is kept in the shade (the room) have a conception of production is higher (19%) and production susunya 11% more than without shade. Seeds immediately treated the sick and because of the seeds bear dikering kandangkan for 1-2 months.
2. Animal Care
Livestock dimandikan 2 days once. All cattle dimandikan parent every day after the cage cleaned before milking and milk. Pen should be cleaned every day, placed on the dirt enclosure special care so that they can be processed into fertilizer. Once cleaned stalls, should be given lantainya mattress pad as a floor general, made of straw or leftover food hijauan (mattress once a week should be demolished). Conducted since cattle weighing up to pedet age adults. Cattle pedet be pondered once a week while the adult cow be pondered every month or 3 months. The new cow disapih be pondered once. Adult cattle can be pondered with assessment based on the measurement of chest circumference and width, the length of the body and high-brow.
3. Giving Feeds
Feeding the cattle can be done with 3 ways, including:
1. penggembalaan system (pasture fattening)
2. kereman (dry lot fattening)
3. how a combination of first and second.
Given the form of feed and concentrate hijauan. Hijauan the form of rice straw, sugarcane leaf shoots, Lamtoro, alfalfa, elephant grass, grass or grass Bengal king. Hijauan given day after milking as much as 30-50 kg / head / day. Feed a cow pasture for adults
generally given as much as 10% of body weight (BB) and the additional feed as many as 1-2% of the BB. Cattle that are breastfeeding (lactation) requires additional food of 25% and concentrate hijauan in ransumnya. Hijauan the form of fresh grass should be added to the types of nuts (legum).
Carbohydrate source such as bran or fine bekatul, pulp, and GAPLEK, oilcake and coconut and minerals (as a brace) in the form of salt, lime, etc.. Concentrate feed should be provided in the morning and afternoon before cattle diperah of 1-2 kg / head / day. Besides food, the cows must be given water to drink as much as 10% of body weight per day.
Maintenance is the main feed and adequate quality, and keep the pen and the health of livestock are kept. Kereman feeding in combination with penggembalaan At the beginning of the season, every day digembalakan cattle. In the rainy season, cattle feed and dikandangkan given the quota. Penggembalaan also aims to provide an opportunity to move the cattle to strengthen his leg.
4. Maintenance Kandang
Ditimbun dirt in other places so that the process of fermentation (+1-2 sunday) and turned into manure that is mature and well. Cowshed can not be a closed meeting (open slightly) so that the air circulation inside running smoothly. Clean drinking water must be available at any time. Feed and drinking places should be made outside the cage but still below the roof. Feed made the place a bit higher so that the feed given diinjak not tread or mixed with dirt. Meanwhile, the water should be made permanent, cement tanks, and a little higher than the surface of the floor. Also provide equipment to bathe cows.
7. Pests and diseases
1. Diseases antraks
* The cause: Bacillus anthracis is transmitted through direct contact, food / drink or inhalation.
1. high fever, body weakness and trembling;
2. respiratory disturbances;
3. gland swelling in the chest, neck, body and genitals full boil;
4. sometimes blood red black out through the nose, ears, mouth, anus and vagina;
5. liquid sewage and livestock are often mixed with blood;
6. swollen spleen and colored black.
* Control: vaccination, antibiotic treatment, isolate the infected cow and bury / burn the dead cow.
2. Nails and mouth disease (PMK) or disease Apthae epizootica (AE)
* The cause: a virus is spread through direct contact with urine, water, milk, saliva and other substances that bacteria tercemar AE.
1. mouth cavity, tongue, and their feet blister or tracak and there is a rounded protrusion that contain clear fluid;
2. heat or fever, body temperature decreased dramatically;
3. appetite decreased even does not want to eat at all;
4. excessive saliva out.
* Control: vaccination and the sick cow exiled and treated separately.
3. Diseases ngorok / mendekur or disease Septichaema epizootica (SE)
* Causes: bacteria Pasturella multocida. Penularannya through food and beverages tercemar bacteria.
1. skin and mucous membrane of the tongue swell, red and kebiruan;
2. neck, anus, vulva and swell;
3. inflame the lungs, and intestinal mucous stomach acid and crimson;
4. fever and difficult breathing, so that people like ngorok. In the situation is very severe, cattle will die in the time between 12-36 hours.
* Control: SE and anti-vaccination given antibiotics or sulfa.
4. Disease or inflammation nail nails decay (foot rot)
* The disease attacks the cow is kept in a cage wet and dirty.
1. germinal nail swelling around the fissure and remove the white turbid liquid;
2. kuku skin peel;
3. grow benjolan that cause pain;
4. cattle and game can finally paralyzed.
7.2. Prevention of attacks
Efforts to prevent and be treated with cut nails and soak in the pain refanol solution for 30 minutes of repeated once a week and put in cattle pens clean and dry.
8.1. Main results
Results from the cultivation of major dairy cow milk is produced by a female parent.
8.2. Additional results
In addition to dairy cow milk also provides the results of other meat and leather come from cows that are not productive and manure produced from cattle dung.
9. PASCAPANEN: ...
10. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BUDIDAYA
10.1. Cultivating Business Analysis
Dairy cow cattle business in Indonesia are by subsistence cattle farmers and small businesses that have not reached oriented economy. The low level of productivity of cattle is due to a lack of capital, and knowledge / skills of farmers that includes aspects of reproduction, feeding, management pascapanen result, the application of the recording system, milking, sanitation and disease prevention. Besides the knowledge of farmers on aspects of governance should be improved so that the trade benefits comparable with the maintenance. Cow milk production in the world has now exceeded 385 million m2/ton/th to the level of sales and beef products is greater than pedet, pejantan, and cattle afkiran. In the United States, the level of sales and purchase of beef products and in cash for 13% of all farms in the world. Meanwhile, sales calf (pedet), pejantan dairy cow, beef and afkir only around 3%. Milk production is still some need to be improved in line with the increasing number of people in this world. To achieve a high level of production and management of the feed must be fully in accordance with the needs of livestock, which feed the minimum that can be used by livestock (be merged) arranged around 3,5-4% of the dry
10.2. Gambaran Peluang Agribusiness
Animal husbandry dairy cow family benefit if the number of cattle that are at least as much as 6 tails, although the level of efficiency can be achieved with a minimum of 2 tails pengusahaannya with average milk production of 15 lt / day. Efforts to increase the income of farmers through dairy cow pembudidayaan can also be done through business diversification. In addition to cooperative efforts and integrated (horizontal and vertical) with farmers and other institutions that berkompeten, and still stabilize the pattern over the pear.
1. Anonymous. . Guidelines Beternak dairy cow. Purwokerto, Central Pembibitan Livestock Hijauan Food and Livestock. P. 2. (brochure).
2. Anonymous. 1983. Instructions how to use medicines livestock. Samarinda, East Kalimantan Husbandry Department. P. 12.
3. Anonymous. 1988. Milch cow farming conditions and the quality of milk on the island of Java. PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27) 1988: 39-40.
4. Anonymous. 1988. Milking, one factor determines the amount of water of milk. Swadaya Livestock Australia, (42) 1988: 23-24.
5. Anonymous. 1988. Improving the welfare of breeder melaluipeningkatan efficiency of production. PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27) 1988: 16-24.
6. Bandini, Yusni. 1997. Bali cattle. Cet 1. Jakarta, Swadaya spreader. P. 73.
7. Church, D.C. 1991. Livestock feeds and feeding. 3 ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc.: 278-279.
8. Djaja, Willian. 1988. Clean and healthy living in the dairy cow farm. PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27) 1988: 25-26.
9. Djarijah, Abbas Sirega. 1996. Beef cattle business. Yogyakarta, Kanisius. P. 43.
10. Fox, Michael W. 1984. Farm animals: husbandry, behavior, and veterinary practice. Baltimore Maryland, University Park Press: 82-112; 150.
11. Ginting, Eliezer. 1988. Guidance and counseling dairy cow business people in East Java. PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27) 1988: 27-33.
12. Hehanussa, P.E. 1995. Master plan Life Science Center-Cibinong. Limnotek, 3 (1) 1995: 1-34.
13. Hermanto. 1988. How does the handling dairy cow in the dry? Swadaya Livestock Australia, (42) 1988: 24-25.
14. Nienaber, J.A., et al. 1974. Livestock Affects production environment and health. Proceedings of the International Livestock Environment Conference. St. Joseph, American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
15. Pane, Ismed. 1986. Pemuliabiakan beef cattle. Jakarta, PT. Media: 1-38; 133.
16. Sabrani, M. 1994. Technology development Sumba Ongole cattle. Jakarta, National Research and Development of Agriculture: 15-26.
17. Suryanto, Bambang; Santosa, Siswanto Imam; Mukson. 1988. Business Husbandry Sciences. Semarang, the Faculty of Animal Husbandry UNDIP. P. 63.
18. Warudjo, Bambang 1988. Quality and price of milk. PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27) 1988: 34-38.
12. CONTACT RELATIONS
1. Project Rural Community Economic Development - BAPPENAS Jl.Sunda Coconut No. 7 Jakarta, Tel. 021 390 9829, Fax. 021 390 9829
2. Office Minister of State Research and Technology, Deputy Pendayagunaan and Pemasyarakatan Iptek, BPPT II Building 6 Floor, Jl. M. H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia, Tel. +62 21 316 9166 ~ 69, Fax. +62 21 310 1952, Web Site: http://www.ristek.go.id
Source: Project Development of Rural Economic Society, Bappenas