Jumat, 16 Januari 2009


(Gallus sp.)


Chicken is chicken, layer chicken female adult who is special to be retrieved eggs. Origin poultry birds were from the partridge and a wild duck captured and maintained and can be quite a lot. Year by year partridge region of the world are closely by the experts. The direction of selection is on the production of many, because the forest before chicken eggs can be taken and the direction of meat production in the selection of the many specific start earlier. Chicken terseleksi for the purpose of the production of meat known as the Broiler chickens, while known for the production of eggs with chicken layer. In addition, the selection also focused on the color of eggs to the chicken and then layer of white chocolate and layer chickens. Crossing and selection is done long enough to produce such a layer chickens have now. In each time the cross, removed and ugly nature of nature is good ( "hold dimurnikan"). This is then known as the superior layer chickens.

Turn to the early 1900s, wild chicken is still in place with the familiar pattern of a society dipedesaan. Entering the 1940's, people began to recognize other than chicken is chicken wild. From here, people began to distinguish between the chicken Netherlands (The Netherlands colonize Indonesia at that time) with wild chickens in Indonesia. Wild chicken is then called a local chicken, which was then called a chicken because chicken is the presence in rural areas. Meanwhile, the Dutch called the chicken with chicken and abroad that a more familiar with the country's chicken (the anchor is still the country's chicken pure groove). Chicken like this can still be found in the 1950s that kept some fans by chickens. By the end of the period of the 1980s, many Indonesians do not know the classification chicken. When the chicken is considered to be just like chicken, eggs tasty when eaten the meat is also eaten well. However, that opinion is not correct, the country chicken / chicken that lay this race but many do not feel his flesh.

Chicken is the first entry and start diternakkan during this period is a chicken race layer of white leghorn lean and generally expire after a period produktifnya. Antipati against the chicken long enough to race towards the end of 1990s. When it started merebak Broiler chicken farm that is specific to the meat, while the dual-purpose layer chicken / chicken layer chocolate mushroom also start. Is the community began to realize that the chickens have any racial classification as a layer Pedaging a reliable and comfortable. Start going too sharp competition between the egg and the chicken race with eggs and meat chicken. The chocolate egg race starts over the wind, while chicken eggs at the start terpuruk use only traditional food recipes. This competition marks the maraknya layer poultry farm.

The chicken and lay the meat and meat can be eaten, but can not be classified as a commercial dual-purpose chicken-winner. The causes, genetic basis of chicken and chicken layer dual-purpose race are much different. Chicken with the capability of adaptation super. So that the chicken can anticipate climate change compared with the chicken race. Only genetisnya the ability to distinguish this production a second chicken. Although the chicken race also comes from the wild chickens in Asia and Africa.


Chicken has been developed very rapidly in setiapa countries. Sentra layer chicken farms have been found in all corners of Indonesia, especially in Java and Sumatra, but poultry farm has spread in Asia and Africa and some European.


Type of layer chickens were divided into two types:

1. Type Chicken Petelur Lightweight.
This type of chicken with a layer of white chicken. Chicken layer light has a slim body / lean-tiny / small and shining eyes. Bulunya white and clean berjengger red. Chicken came from pure white leghorn groove. Chicken groove this difficult search, but the light commercial layer chickens sold in Indonesia, many with different names. Each pembibit layer chickens in Indonesia have a certain layer chickens and sell the light (white layer) is commercial. This chicken is able to lay more than 260 eggs per year production hen house. As a layer, this type of chicken to be special indeed, so all are focused on the ability of his ability to lay eggs, because only a little meat. Chicken is light-sensitive layer terhadapa hot weather and a commotion, and the chicken is easily upset and surprised if this chicken production will go down quickly, so when the heat.
2. Type Chicken Petelur Medium.
Chicken's body weight was heavy. Despite that, the weight was in the weight between light and layer chickens Broiler chickens. Therefore, the chicken is called chicken type layer medium. Chicken body is thin, but also does not look fat. Quite a lot of eggs and can also generate a lot of meat. This chicken is also called the dual-purpose type chickens. Because the color of chocolate, then the chicken is called chicken with a chocolate layer generally have a brown fur color also. Dipasaran people say that brown eggs are preferred than the egg white, if seen from the color of the skin that is more interesting than the brown and white, but in terms of nutrition and taste relatively the same. One thing that is different dipasaran price, the price of brown eggs are more expensive than white eggs. This is because chocolate eggs more weight than the egg white and egg production is less than the brown and white eggs. In addition, layer chicken meat from the medium will be sold as behavior broiler with a delicious taste.


Chicken-chicken layer of winning are very good as plasma is used to produce sperm quality seeds. Results sewage and waste from the chicken-cutting is the result of the side layer that can be processed into manure, compost or energy sources (biogas). Meanwhile, such as bowel and viscera can be used as chicken feed poultry after dried. In addition, chicken is also used in religious ceremonies.


1. Location far from the hustle / housing residents.
2. Location easy to reach from the center of marketing.
3. Location selected is settled, not moved.


1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
1. Kandang
Climate enclosure that is suitable for Beternak chicken layer covering the temperature range between 32,2-35 ° C, humidity ranging between 60-70%, lighting and heating or enclosure in accordance with existing rules, the layout of the enclosure to get the morning sun, and not against the direction of the gale and the good air circulation, do not make a pen with a rolling surface of the land because air circulation and prevent dangerous flow of water surface when the rain came down, it's built with a pen so that the system is open enough to give the wind blowing fresh in the enclosure. To kontruksi pens should not be with the expensive materials, which is strong, clean and durable. Next equipment enclosure should be as complete as possible where food, water, the water, where ransum, where medicines and equipment lighting system.
1. Forms of pen-based system is divided into two:
1. Colony cage systems, one for many chicken stalls which consists of thousands of chickens layer;
2. System individual pens, pen is better known as the Cage. The enclosure of this is the influence of individuals in the enclosure to be dominant because one box for a pen chickens. Kandang system widely used in commercial poultry farm layer.
2. Lantainya based on the type of enclosure is divided into three types, namely:
1. liter enclosure with the floor, the enclosure is made with floor coated bran, Pesak / rice bran and pens are generally applied in the colony cage system;
2. cage with perforated floor vault, the floor for this system consists of a timber or help with kaso holes of which, the later to dispose of chicken feces and directly to the shelter;
3. cage floor with a mixture liter with perforated hollow, with a comparison of 40% for the broad base floor enclosure liter and 60% with wide hollow perforated floor (consisting of 30% on the right and 30% on the left).
2. Tools
1. Litter (floor covering)
Alas floor / litter must be dry, it does not have a roof leak and rain water does not have a go despite gale. Litter thick as 10 cm, the material used litter mixture of bran / husk with a little lime and sand secukupnya, hasi or wood shavings with a length of between 3-5 cm to substitute bran / husk.
2. Lay place
Providing a place so easy to lay eggs, and take the egg shell is not dirty, can be the size of 30 x 35 x 45 cm is enough for 4-5 chickens. Dididing placed the box with the pen is higher than the perch, so easy placement of eggs from the outside so that the egg is not broken and terinjak-running and eat. Be made the basis of sloping wire directly to the egg to the nest after laying and made lubah larger than big nest eggs on the bottom.
3. Place perch
Places to sit resting place / sleep, made near the wall and arranged to fall in the dirt floor that is easily cleaned from the outside. Created closed to avoid the wind and the location is lower than the spawn.
4. Places to eat, drink and Grit
Food and drink should be enough, material of bamboo, or Almunium are strong and does not leak also not rust. To place a special box with Grit
2. Preparing Seeds
* Chicken layer that will be eligible to be kept as the following, among others:
1. Chicken layer must be healthy and not physical disability.
2. Normal growth and development.
3. Chicken layer derived from seeds that are known advantages.
* There are some technical guidelines to select seeds / DOC (Day Old Chicken) / chicken aged a day:
1. Chickling (DOC) derived from a healthy mother.
2. Bulu appear smooth and full and good growth.
3. There is no disability in the body.
4. Chickling mempunyak appetite is good.
5. Normal body size, the size of body weight between 35-40 grams.
6. No letakan feces diduburnya.
1. Candidates and election Seeds Up
Preparing seed layer of chicken berkreteria good in this case depends on the following:
1. Conversion Ransum.
Conversion ransum is perabandingan between ransum spent in any number of chicken eggs. The condition is often called the ransum per kilogram of eggs. Chicken will be good to eat ransum and a number of eggs that produce more / greater than the number of ransum the dimakannya. When the chicken is eating too much and laying the little things this is a poor reflection of the chicken. When the seedlings have a chicken and conversion of small seeds that can be selected, the value of this conversion will be following in the different seeds and chicken can also be a sheet of meat is often distributed to breeders pembibit in each campaign ayamnya seed sales.
2. Production of eggs.
Egg production is certainly a concern. Selected seeds that can produce many eggs. But the conversion ransum remain the main production of chicken eggs is high but also does not eat a lot of benefit.
3. Achievements in the seed / dipeternakan.
When the two things have been good over the ability of chickens to lay eggs only in the ability of a seed it. Examples of some achievements chicken seed layer can be seen in the data below. - Babcock B-300 v: furry white, light type, egg production (hen house) 270, ransum 1.82 kg / dozen eggs.
* Dekalb Xl-Link: furry white, light type, egg production (hen house) 255-280, ransum 1,8-2,0 kg / dozen eggs.
* Hisex white: white furry, light type, egg production (hen house) 288, ransum 1.89 grams / dozen eggs.
* H & W nick: furry white, light type, egg production (hen house) 272, ransum 1,7-1,9 kg / dozen eggs.
* Hubbarb leghorn: furry white, light type, egg production (hen house) 260, ransum 1,8-1,86 kg / dozen eggs.
* Ross white: white furry, light type, egg production (hen house) 275, ransum 1.9 kg / dozen eggs.
Shaver S * 288: furry white, light type, egg production (hen house) 280, ransum 1,7-1,9 kg / dozen eggs.
* Babcock B 380: furry brown, dual-purpose type, egg production (hen house) 260-275, ransum 1.9 kg / dozen eggs.
* Hisex brown: brown furry, dual-purpose type, egg production (hen house) 272, ransum 1.98 kg / dozen eggs.
* Hubbarb golden cornet: furry brown, dual-purpose type, egg production (hen house) 260, ransum 1,24-1,3 kg / dozen eggs.
* Ross Brown: furry brown, dual-purpose type, egg production (hen house) 270, ransum 2.0 kg / dozen eggs.
* Shaver star cross 579: furry brown, dual-purpose type, egg production (hen house) 265, ransum 2,0-2,08 kg / dozen eggs.
* Warren sal sex link: furry brown, dual-purpose type, egg production (hen house) 280, ransum 2.04 kg / dozen eggs.
3. Maintenance
1. Sanitation and preventive action
Environmental hygiene pens (sanitation) in the area of livestock disease prevention efforts are the most inexpensive, energy that is required only ulet / skilled course. Preventive action by giving the vaccine in cattle with the brand and dose according to a note on the label of a poultry shoup.
2. Giving Feeds
To feed layer chickens have two (2) phases, namely starter phase (age 0-4 weeks) and finisher phase (age 4-6 sunday).
1. Quality and quantity of feed phase starter is as follows:
* Kwalitas womb or vitamin feed consisting of 22-24% protein, 2.5% fat, fiber roughly 4%, Calcium (Ca) 1%, Phospor (P) 0,7-0,9%, ME 2800-3500 Kcal.
* Quantity feed divided / grouped into 4 (four) is the first sunday (age 1-7 days) 17 grams / day / head; second sunday (age 8-14 days) 43 grams / day / head; sunday to-3 ( age 15-21 days) 66 grams / day / head and sunday to-4 (age 22-29 days) 91 grams / day / head. So the amount of food needed each tails up at the age of 4 sunday 1520 grams.
2. Quality and quantity feed finisher phase is as follows:
* Kwalitas womb or vitamin feed consists of a protein 18,1-21,2%; fat 2.5%; 4.5% coarse fiber, calcium (Ca) 1%; Phospor (P) 0,7-0,9 % and energy (ME) 2900-3400 Kcal.
* Quantity feed divided / grouped in four age groups, namely: to sunday-5 (age 30-36 days) 111 grams / day / head; to sunday-6 (umut 37-43 days) 129 grams / day / head; to sunday -7 (age 44-50 days) 146 grams / day / head and sunday to-8 (age 51-57 days) 161 grams / day / head. So the total number of feed per head at the age of 30-57 days is 3829 grams.
The provision of drinking age adjusted dangan chicken, in this case are grouped in two (2) phases, namely:
1. Starter phase (age 1-29 days) of drinking water needs more divided on each sunday, namely
sunday to-1 (1-7 days) 1.8 lliter/hari/100 tails;
sunday to-2 (8-14 days) 3.1 liter/hari/100 tails;
sunday to-3 (15-21 days) and 4.5 liter/hari/100 tails
sunday to-4 (22-29 days) 7.7 liter / day / head.
So the amount of water needed until age 4 sunday was 122.6 liter/100 tails. The provision of drinking water on the first day should be given extra sugar and anti-stress drugs into the drink of water. Too much sugar is given 50 grams / liter of water.
2. Phase finisher (age 30-57 days), terkelompok in each of the sunday
sunday to-5 (30-36 days) 9.5 lliter/hari/100 tails;
sunday to-6 (37-43 days) 10.9 liter/hari/100 tails;
sunday to-7 (44-50 days) and 12.7 liter/hari/100 tails
sunday to-8 (51-57 days) 14.1 liters / day / head. So total water 30-57 minutes of 333.4 liters / day / head.
3. Vaccination and the provision of medicine
Vaccination is a way of controlling the disease virus menulardengan how to create the body's immune. Pemberiannya regularly is very important to prevent the disease. The vaccine is divided into 2 types, namely:
The vaccine is active vaccine contains live virus. Immune incurred more than the old vaccine inaktif / passive. Inaktif vaccine, the vaccine is a virus that has been weakened / off without changing antigenic structure, able to form the immune substances. Immunity caused more short, the benefits disuntikan on suspected sick chicken.

Multiple vaccines:
1. NCD vrus Lasota vaccine made Drh Kuryna
2. NCD virus vaccine made Komarov Drh Kuryna (vaccine inaktif)
3. NCD HB-1/Pestos vaccine.
4. Vaccines Cacar / pox, the virus Diftose.
5. RCD vaccine anti Lyomarex vaccine for Marek.

In vaccination requirements are:
1. That vaccinated poultry must be healthy.
2. Dose of vaccine and packaging must be appropriate.
3. Sterilization equipment.
4. Maintenance Kandang
So that the building enclosure can be useful in an effective, then the building enclosure should be maintained both the cage and always kept clean / check if there is a damaged part that immediately disulam / repaired again. Thus the power to be shed without reducing the maximum requirements for the livestock pens are kept.

7. Pests and diseases

1. Diseases due to bacteria
1. White night (pullorum)
The chicken with a high death rate.
The cause: Salmonella pullorum. Control: treated with antibiotics
2. Foel typhoid
Target the young chicken is disering / adolescents and adults.
The cause: Salmonella gallinarum. Symptoms: chicken feces issued green colors.
Control: the antibiotic / sulfa preparation.
3. Parathyphoid
The chicken under the age of one month.
The cause: the bacteria from the genus Salmonella.
Control: the preparation sulfa / drug similar.
4. Cholera
This disease is rare attack chickling chicken or teenagers, but in addition to the chicken and turkey attack dove.
The cause: pasteurella multocida.
Symptoms: a serious attack on the chicken wattle (gelambir under half) will expand.
Control: with antibiotics (Tetrasiklin / streptomycin).
5. Cold chicken (Coryza)
The chicken and all age children, especially the chicken.
The cause: being intermediet between bacteria and viruses.
Symptoms: the chicken fell ill show signs such as a cold person.
Control: can be cured with antibiotia / sulfa preparation.
6. CRD
CRD is a disease in poultry popular in Indonesia. The chicken and chicken children adolescents.
Control: performed with antibiotics (Spiramisin and Tilosin).
7. Infectious synovitis
This disease often attacks the young, especially chicken Broiler chickens and turkeys.
The cause: the bacteria from the genus Mycoplasma.
Control: with antibiotics.
2. Virus Diseases as
1. Newcastle disease (ND)
ND is a viral disease by popular breeder chickens in Indonesia. At the beginning of 1926 found in the area Priangan. The findings are not widespread throughout the world. Then in Europe, this disease is found to be longer and the world. Finally, this disease called Newcastle disease.
2. Infectious bronchitis
Infectious bronchitis attack all age chicken. In the adult disease reduce egg production. This disease is a serious respiratory disease for poultry and poultry adolescents. Adult chicken mortality rate is low, but in chickling reach 40%. When the chicken eggs, the soft layer, the skin is not normal egg, egg white and yellow liquid easily migrate (yellow always have a normal set). There is no treatment for this disease but can be prevented by vaccination.
3. Infectious laryngotracheitis
Infectious laryngotracheitis is a serious respiratory disease occurred in poultry. The cause: a virus diindetifikasikan with Tarpeia avium. The virus is easily killed outside with disinfectant, such as carbolic acid.
1. there is no cure for the disease;
2. prevention and vaccination is carried out with strict hygiene.
4. Chicken pox (fowl pox)
Symptoms: the body of the chicken that fell ill will crest The speck The speck-pox.
The cause: a virus Borreliota avium.
Control: the vaccination.
5. Marek
The disease has become popular since 1980 until now the nation's poultry, causing death due serangannya chicken to 50%.
Control: the vaccination.
6. Gumboro
This disease is found in 1962 by Cosgrove in the Delmarva region the United States. The disease attacks the fabrisius exchanges, particularly the children aged 3-6 chicken sunday.
3. Disease and toxin because Jamur
Because this disease is like a mushroom or damage to food. Results devastation this issue Zak poison in the food and the chicken. There are also processing the materials that cause amino acid changes to toxic substances. Some of this disease are:
1. Black vomit blood (Gizzerosin)
The total damage in the chicken gizzard.
The cause: the poison in fish meal but not all fish meal cause this disease. This disease arises due to the heating of food amino acids decompose into toxic hingg.
Control: not exist.
2. Oilcake of poison nut
Oil is high in coconut oilcake and oilcake peanut stimulate the growth of the fungus Aspergillus group. To avoid the poisoned peanut oilcake not used in rancung antioxidants or oilcake oilcake coconut and nuts contain a high fat content.
4. Diseases due to parasites
1. Worms
Because the disease is rarely found in the worm farm is clean and well maintained. But farming is a lot of dirty siput drink dirty water and the chicken fell ill may worms.
The worms attack the body is thin, dull bulunya, egg production decreases and less active.
2. Lice
Many of the chicken farms in Indonesia. Lice from the outside but not visible when the quill disibak will look kutunya. Physical sign of chickens fell ill chickens will be nervous. Lice are found in general that does not shed sunlight directly affected by the side of the cage directed cross from East to West. Use spray lice same way with the mosquito spraying. Spraying is not allowed on the hands and eyes directly and spraying is done at night so that its implementation is easier because the chicken is not active.
5. Diseases due to Protozoa
It comes from protozoa (trichomoniasis, Hexamitiasis and Blachead), it is added to the parasite, but in fact different. This disease is rare attack chicken farms are environmental hygiene of reed and water.


1. Main results
Results from the main cultivation of chicken eggs is a layer of chicken diahsilkan oelh. Should eggs harvested 3 times a day. This aim to be content tlur damage caused by the virus can avoid / terkurangi. The first in the morning at between 10.00-11.00, 13.00-14.00 at the second, the third (final), while the enclosure is done to check all at 15.00-16.00.
2. Additional results
Results that can be dinukmati results from the cultivation of chicken meat is a layer of chicken that have old (afkir) and dirt that can be sold for manure.
3. Collecting
Eggs that have been generated captured and placed in the top of the egg tray (tray of eggs). And in the collection of eggs, the authorities should immediately separate the eggs between the normal and the abnormal. Normal eggs is eggs oval, clean and skin mulus and weighing 57.6 grams with a volume of 63 cc. Abnormal eggs such as eggs are too small or large, cracked skin or curls, oval shape.
4. Cleaning
After the eggs are collected, the eggs are exposed to because of dirty litter or chicken feces dibershkan. Eggs affected litter can be cleaned with a fine iron amplas, or washed with a special cleaning fluid. Normally cleaning is done for eggs tetas.



1. Cultivating Business Analysis
Approximate analysis of layer chicken farming buras (150 head) in 1998 in Bintaro, Jakarta.
1. Production cost
1. Fixed capital (investment)
* Kandang and roof ------------------------------- Rp. 225,000, --
* Up @ Rp 150 tails. ,----------------- Rp 17,500. 2,626,000, --
The number of fixed capital costs ---------------------------- Rp. 2,850,000, --
2. Working capital / variable
* Feed 90 gr x 150 x Rp. 1210, -/kg x 30-------- Rp. 490,000, --
* Depreciation pens (4tahun )-------------------- Rp. 4700, --
* Depreciation parent (age 2 years productive )------- Rp. 109,375, --
* Drugs ------------------------------------- Rp. 1000, --
* Risk of death 3% per year ------------------- Rp. 6565, --
Amount of the working capital ---------------------------- Rp. 611,640, --
The amount of production cost ------------------------------- Rp. 611,640, --
2. Income
1. Eggs 60 x Rp. 650, - x 30 ---------- ------------------ Rp. 1,170,000, --
2. Chicken afkir tails x Rp 141. ,------------------ Rp 10,000. 58750, --
Total revenue --------------------------------------- Rp. 1,228,750, --
3. Benefits
1. Rp. 1228.750, - - Rp. 611,640, - =--------------------- Rp. 617110, -4)
4. Parameters of the business
a. B / C ratio = 2.0
* The calculation of costs and revenues made within 1 month
* Prices calculated in November 1998
* Required land 40 m 2
2. Gambaran Peluang Agribusiness
These eggs in the country's needs continue to increase in line with the improvement in the pattern of human life will increase the demand of animal protein derived from eggs. In addition there is also government programs to improve nutrition, especially children. The need for increased egg does not offset the production of eggs, so there were a great lack of supply of eggs which resulted in the price of eggs expensive. By looking at these layer chicken farming can provide the benefits promised when the management-intensive and integrated.


1. Muhammad Rasyaf, Dr., Ir. Beternak Chicken Pedaging. Publisher spreader Swadaya (member IKAPI) Jakarta.
2. Cahyono, Bambang, Ir.1995. How to Improve Cultivation Ras Pedaging Chicken (Broiler). Publisher Reader Nusatama Yogyakarta.


1. Project Rural Community Economic Development - BAPPENAS Jl.Sunda Coconut No. 7 Jakarta, Tel. 021 390 9829, Fax. 021 390 9829
2. Office Minister of State Research and Technology, Deputy Pendayagunaan and Pemasyarakatan Iptek, BPPT II Building 6 Floor, Jl. M. H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia, Tel. +62 21 316 9166 ~ 69, Fax. +62 21 310 1952, Web Site: http://www.ristek.go.id

Source: Project Development of Rural Economic Society, Bappenas

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